Information Technology and Innovation Foundation. Apart from any physical transmission media there may be, networks comprise additional basic system building blocks, such as network interface controllers NICs , repeaters , hubs , bridges , switches , routers , modems , and firewalls.

Bluejacking Technology: Netscape created a standard called secure socket layer SSL. After that, the first method can be used to crack the PIN.

Network protocols that use aggressive retransmissions to compensate for packet loss tend to keep systems in a state of network congestion—even after the initial load is reduced to a level that would not normally induce network congestion. Fast Ethernet provides a high degree of network interoperability and is a vendor-neutral network technology.