These actions form a foraging cycle. In mimicry, an organism has a similar appearance to another species, as in the drone fly , which resembles a bee yet has no sting. Reward no longer available.

Theoretical Population Biology. Limnological Analyses. When a predator is approaching an individual and attack seems imminent, the prey still has several options.

Abundance Allee effect Depensation Ecological yield Effective population size Intraspecific competition Logistic function Malthusian growth model Maximum sustainable yield Overpopulation in wild animals Overexploitation Population cycle Population dynamics Population modeling Population size Predator—prey Lotka—Volterra equations Recruitment Resilience Small population size Stability. Ruxton, Graeme D.